Make your own free website on

[ < < < Home ] [ < < Reference Start ] [ < Reference Contents ]
[ < Previous=HEAD 3.13 ] [ Next=Examples > ]

Intelligence Services

HEAD 3.13 Options

HEAD has option Menu sections for:

	File, View, HEAD, Misc and Help.

The File, View, Misc and Help menu sections gives standard
options like those used by other Text Tools in PentaTextTools.

These options are detailed in COMMON Options.

The HEAD Menu gives options that govern display of empty lines,
the maximum number of lines to display and the region of the
file from which to begin displaying text lines.

All Options are detailed in this section but some explanations
refer You to COMMON Options.

For BEGINNERS the options most useful are:
	-l<d>	  Last line to be output. (10)
	-d	  Discount empty lines.

as detailed below.

-$	  show contact information.
-?	  show program information.
-C:f<d>	  string for File insert for -C options. ([F])
-C:i	  when option -C<d> Ignore ERROR LEVEL.
-C:n	  when option -C<d> No filter.
-C<d>	  pre-filter input data by Command <d> with sub [F].
-N	  No process of data.
-O	  turn Off all options.
-R<d>	  Register this program with supplied key <d> and .KEY file.
-X<d>	  eXclude files list.++
-a	  show All of Many options by Menu.
-f	  show File name at front of each line.
-h	  select Hidden files too.
-jA       options with Attached list data (++) can Accumulate.
-jF<d>	  take options and specs from File name <d>.
-jT<d>	  Text characters range is <d>. ([\9\10\13\32-\126])
-ja	  just examine All-ASCII files.
-je	  expand Environment %VARIABLES% in program parameters.
-jf	  Filter output to Text characters.
-jn	  wait for Network access.
-jp	  do data Prompt.
-jq<d>    command quote sequence. (")
-jt	  just examine all Text files.
-kB	  show edit Backup:<InputFile>-><BackUpFile> when -ke -ko and -kb.
-kF	  edit Files as NOT having DOS 8.3 file names.
-o	  Omit single file name at start of output.
-r	  Recursive search for file(s), dir\files(s) or dir\.
-tA	  append All output if option -to<d>.
-tC	  open all files as Compatible for sharing.
-tF<d>	  default directories for option -jF<d> command File(s).++ (.;:HOME:)
-tI	  show all options by Input/Output.
-tK	  allow Key buffer for typeahead.
-tO	  append Output if option -to<d>.
-tS	  show all options by Sequence.
-tT<d>    Temporary files directory. (%TEMP%)
-tV<d>	  display message <d> on Video screen.
-tW	  append Warnings and error messages if option -tw<d>.
-ta<d>	  save All output to file <d>.
-tb	  disable VGA Blink.
-tc<d>	  column to wrap data display.
-td	  show screen space or tab as Dot or diamond.
-te	  Eliminate screen status line.
-tf	  try old standard DOS 8.3 File names first.
-ti	  use Input by pipe | or redirect < for Keys Input.
-tk	  press Key to continue.
-to<d>	  save Output to file <d>.
-tw<d>	  save Warnings and error messages to file <d>.
-tx	  use eXplicit *: and / in file paths.

See Common Options.


-d	  Discount empty lines.

Only lines with data are displayed.  The total possible number
of lines (-l<d>) only includes lines with data.

	head head.txt -d head.txt

...without options then "-d" shows only non-empty lines in file

	head -d -n head.txt

..."-d" with "-n" shows only non-empty lines and their line


-jf	  Filter output to Text characters.

Display any non-text character sequence as high lighted '@'.

See Common Options.


-l<d>	  maximum Lines to be output. (10)

The number of lines to be output.

Less lines will be shown if there are fewer than <d> lines at
the Head, Middle or Tail of file.

Discount empty lines (-d) will only allow non-empty lines to be
part of this.

Default is 10.

	head -l3 -n head.txt

..."-l3" shows just 3 lines at start of file head.txt.

	head -d -l3 -n head.txt

..."-d -l3" shows just 3 non-empty lines in same.

	head -m5 -l3 -n head.txt

..."-m5 -l3" shows just 3 lines starting at line 5.

	head -t -l3 head.txt

..."-t -l3" shows just 3 lines at Tail.


-m<d>	  do Middle starting with line number <d>.

Start with line <d> and output up to the maximum number of lines

	head -m7 -n head.txt

..."-m7" shows just lines starting at line 7.


-n	  show line Number.

HEAD is line oriented so an option is provided for showing the
line number for each line output.

This option is similar to other Text Tools use of option "-n".

The first line is line 1.

There is no maximum.

	head -n head.txt -n- head.txt

..."-n" shows with and without line numbers.


-t	  do Tail.

Only display up to the maximum number of lines (specified by
-l<d> or default of 10) at the TAIL end of data.

	head -t head.txt

..."-t" shows just end lines.

	head -t -n -d -l3 head.txt

..."-t -n -d -l3" shows just 3 non-empty lines at Tail.

[ < < < Home ] [ < < Reference Start ] [ < Reference Contents ]
[ < Previous=HEAD 3.13 ] [ Next=Examples > ]

Intelligence Services

© Intelligence Services 1987 - 2008   GPO Box 9,   ADELAIDE SA 5001,   AUSTRALIA